Project Networks (2023)

From Systems Analysis and Design: A Structured Approach by William S. Davis

This page provides additional information on two techniques covered in class: Gantt Charts and Project Networks.

  • Gantt Charts.
    The following chart contains some features that are not included in the example in your book, or in many other books for that matter. As we mentioned in class, the inclusion of changes in schedules afforded by using the carets, both earlier completion and later completion, is valuable in managing a project. Unfortunately, the details in the following scan are not as clear as they might be!
    - Unfilled bars indicate scheduled progress.
    - Filled bars indicate actual progress.
    - Unfilled carets indicate scheduled completion.
    - Filled carets indicate actual completion.

    Project Networks (1)

  • Project Network.
    The use of a directed graph in the form of a project network, allows precedence relationships between tasks to be displayed visually, along with slack time for tasks and the critical path of the project. In order to complete either a Gantt Chart or a Project Network the analyst must identify all tasks, estimated completion time for the tasks, resources needed to complete the task (personnel and hardware), and the task precedences. The task precedences are those tasks that must be completed before another can begin. Some tasks will have no precedence tasks, others will have several. For example, you cannot document something until there is something to document. Keep in mind that there can be more than one possible project network for a project, especially depending on who is available to work on tasks.
    Project Networks (2)
    • Event - A milestone in the project, a point at which one or more activities end and one or more new ones start. An event is indicated by a node on a project network.
    • Activity - a task in the project, such as code a module, test a module, write the User Guide. An activity is indicated by a directed line on a project network.
    • Dummy Activity - an indication that the activity starting from the end node of the dummy activity cannot start until the start node event is completed. No time is associated with a dummy node. It is a marker of task precedence.
    • Earliest Event Time - The earliest event time represents the earliest time an event can possibly begin; conventionally, it is zero for the first event. For all others, EET is computed by:
      1. Select all activities entering the event.
      2. For each entering activity, sum the activity's duration and the EET of its initial event.
      3. Select the highest EET obtained.
    • Latest Event Time - The latest event time represents the latest time an event can possibly begin without affecting the schedule of the project. By convention, the LET of the last or terminal event is equal to its earliest event time. For all other events, the latest event time is computed by working backwards from the terminal node (after having calculated the EETs) according to the following rules:
      1. Consider all activities leaving an event.
      2. Subtract each activity's duration from the LET of its terminal event.
      3. Select the smallest LET obtained.
    • Slack Time - (LET - EET - duration) for a given node. The difference between the LET and EET represents how much additional time is available for slippage.
    • Critical Path - The path on the directed graph where the slack time is zero. In other words, the critical path shows the progression of tasks that must be completed on time or the project will fall behind schedule. The activities on the critical path need to be monitored with care by a project manager.
    Project Networks (3)


What is a project network quizlet? ›

Project Network. a flow chart that graphically depicts the sequence, interdependence, and start & finish times of the project job plan of activities that is the critical path through the network.

What are the eight rules to follow in developing project networks? ›

The following eight rules apply broadly when a project network is being developed.
  • Networks usually flow from left to right.
  • An activity cannot begin until all connected preceding activities have been completed.
  • Arrows in networks point to precedence and flow. ...
  • Each activity must have a unique identification number.

How is project network calculation? ›

  1. First approach – You calculate the network diagram starting on day 0. ...
  2. Second approach – You calculate the network diagram starting on day 1. ...
  3. Early Start = EF of predecessor activity + 1.
  4. Early Finish = ES + activity duration – 1.
  5. Late Finish = LS of successor activity – 1.
  6. Late Start = LF – activity duration + 1.

What are the three phases of a project network? ›

The phases of a project are initiation, planning, execution, and closeout.

What is project network technique? ›

A PERT chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) that represent events or milestones in the project, linked by labeled vectors that represent tasks in the project.

What is project network analysis? ›

Network Analysis: The general name given to certain specific techniques which can be used for the planning, management, and control of projects. Some use the term network analysis synonymously with critical path method (CPM), critical path analysis (CPA), and programme evaluation and review technique (PERT).

What is the purpose of a project network diagram? ›

A project network diagram is useful for planning and tracking a project from start to finish and organizing tasks within a project. It's usually depicted as a chart with a series of boxes and arrows. The most common method for creating network diagrams in project management is the precedence diagramming method (PDM).

What is a project network diagram with example? ›

A Project Network Diagram is a chart that shows the arrangements of tasks within a project. It can also contain other information such as the duration and connection between each task. This is an essential part of project management since you will be able to streamline the execution process.

What is the golden rule of networking? ›

At its simplest, Golden Rule networking is about giving before you attempt to get something from your connections. By making yourself a proactive contributor to your network, you lay the groundwork for return future contributions from your connections.

What is the 5 4 3 rule of network design? ›

It means that in a collision domain there should be at most 5 segments tied together with 4 repeaters, with up to 3 mixing segments (10BASE5, 10BASE2, or 10BASE-FP).

How do I calculate how many networks I have? ›

The total number of networks a class address may have is calculated by subtracting the number of bits in the subnet mask from the number of bits used to determine which class of network it is. For example, a class A network has an 8-bit subnet mask. Only 1 bit is used to determine that it is a class A network.

How do you calculate network percentage? ›

This basic formula can be used in most instances: (((InBytes * 8) * 100) / (time2 - time1)) / line_speed (((OutBytes * 8) * 100) / (time2 - time1)) / line_speed For a traditional 10 Mbps half duplex link, the Inbytes and OutBytes can be summed and used in the above formula and then reported as a single percentage.

What are the 3 important components of project planning? ›

The three major parts of a project plan are the scope, budget and timeline.
They involve the following aspects:
  • Scope. The scope determines what a project team will and will not do. ...
  • Budget. ...
  • Timeline.

What are the 3 S's of project management? ›

Scope, schedule, cost. Good, fast, cheap.

What are the 2 network techniques? ›

PERT and CPM are techniques of project management useful in the basic managerial functions of planning, scheduling and control. PERT stands for “Programme Evaluation & Review Technique” and CPM are the abbreviation for “Critical Path Method”.

What are the two types of project network models? ›

The two commonly used network techniques are CPM and PERT.

What are the two approaches used to develop project network? ›

The two approaches used to develop project networks are AOA and AON. In developing a project network, neither looping statements nor conditional statements are permitted. Burst activities have more than one activity immediately following it (more than one dependency arrow flowing from it).

What are types of network analysis? ›

The six kinds of network analysis layers in ArcGIS include: route analysis layer, closest facility analysis layer, service area analysis layer, OD cost matrix Page 12 analysis layer, vehicle routing problem analysis layer, location-allocation analysis layer.

What are the basic rules of network analysis? ›

Rules for constructing network

(i.e) only one activity can connect any two nodes. (ii) No two activities can be identified by the same head and tail events. (iii) Nodes are numbered to identify an activity uniquely. Tail node (starting point) should be lower than the head node (end point) of an activity.

What are the main objective of network analysis? ›

Network Analysis is useful in many living application tasks. It helps us in deep understanding the structure of a relationship in social networks, a structure or process of change in natural phenomenons, or even the analysis of biological systems of organisms. Identifying CM targets ,etc.

What are the characteristics of a good network representing a project? ›

Find out if you've got what it takes – or can learn how – to be a successful networker.
Here are those seven characteristics in order of importance, according to the survey respondents.
  • Good listener. ...
  • Positive attitude. ...
  • Helps others/collaborative. ...
  • Sincere/authentic. ...
  • Follows up. ...
  • Trustworthy.
Nov 8, 2017

What uses network as the basic tool of project management? ›

Network Diagrams

These diagrams are one of the most important tools in project management that can be used in the process of project planning. Also known as an “Arrow” diagram, because the diagram consists of different arrows that can be used to connect different activities and also to display precedence.

What elements are included in a project network? ›

What elements are included in a project network? the sequence of activities to complete the project, inter-dependencies of activities and work packages within a work breakdown structure.

How are WBS and project networks linked? ›

While a WBS divides project deliverables into manageable pieces, a project network diagram takes those pieces and/or the tasks required to complete them and organizes them chronologically. In short, a work breakdown structure shows a whole and its parts while a project network diagram shows a sequence of events.

What are the 7 components of a network? ›

Computer networks components comprise both physical parts as well as the software required for installing computer networks, both at organizations and at home. The hardware components are the server, client, peer, transmission medium, and connecting devices. The software components are operating system and protocols.

What are the 4 main components of a network? ›

A network has 5 basic components viz. clients, servers, channels, interface devices and operating systems.

What are the 7 characteristics of a network? ›

Basic characteristics of a Computer Network
  • Security. Security is one of the most essential characteristics of a computer network. ...
  • Reliability. ...
  • Scalability. ...
  • Flow of Data. ...
  • High performance. ...
  • Fault tolerance. ...
  • Quality of Service (QoS) ...
  • What are the characteristics of the physical layer?

What is the 80/20 rule of networking? ›

In a nutshell: At any given networking event, spend 80% of your conversations focusing on whomever you're talking to—and only 20% on self-promotion. More than ever, networking is a vital part of the employment search process—70% of jobs are now found through networking and many are filled by word of mouth.

What is the first law of networking? ›

s revisit the first law of networking: the law of the small world. Consider the whole world as a large clique of friends: Extend your offer of support to everybody, and expand your reputation as far as you can.

What is 5 4 3 2 1 rule of network design? ›

The rule breaks down into five key components as follows: 5 - the number of network segments 4 - the number of repeaters needed to join the segments into one collision domain 3 - the number of network segments that have active (trans​mit​ting) devices attached 2 - the number of segments that do not have active devices ...

What is the 3 repeater rule? ›

The 5-4-3 represents the creation of a single collision domain, and the numbers are maximums: (5-) no more than five segments between any two nodes that communicate with each other, (-4-) no more than four repeaters in those five segments, and (-3) no more than three of the five segments can have active devices ( ...

How is network usage calculated? ›

On Windows, it is calculated by dividing the Network Interface(*)\Bytes/sec performance counter by the Current Bandwidth and multiplying the result by 400. These calculations are necessary in order to convert between bits and bytes and take full duplex into consideration.

How do you build a successful network? ›

7 Ways to Build a Strong Professional Network
  1. Focus on the right people. ...
  2. Create win/win situations. ...
  3. Give and receive. ...
  4. Become a connector. ...
  5. Remember to reconnect. ...
  6. Use social networks. ...
  7. Start your own networking group.
Aug 29, 2022

What is the first step in constructing a project network? ›

  1. Lay out the project work. The very first phase of creating a network project diagram is to identify all the major project activity. ...
  2. Create a sequence of tasks. Step two for project network diagrams is to determine the sequence of activities and tasks. ...
  3. Estimate the duration of the work. ...
  4. Create your project schedule diagram.
Aug 19, 2022

What is a simple way to build a network? ›

10 tips to build a network
  1. Search for people who can make a difference. ...
  2. Search for connections online. ...
  3. Ask your current network for contacts. ...
  4. Consider your passions. ...
  5. Be willing to help first. ...
  6. Add value to your relationships. ...
  7. Go to networking events. ...
  8. Develop an online presence.
Feb 22, 2021

How do you measure network success? ›

For example, if your prime aim is to secure a new role via your networking, you can measure:
  1. The number of connections you make with potential hiring managers.
  2. The number of conversations you have with people who may know of job vacancies.
  3. Number of interviews secured via your networking.
Jan 14, 2011

How do you measure network efficiency? ›

When optimizing network performance there are important metrics that must be measured. Some common metrics used to measure network traffic performance include latency, packet loss indicators, jitter, bandwidth, and throughput.

How do I use Microsoft Project network diagram? ›

To find the Network diagram view, choose View > Network Diagram.
  1. Add a legend.
  2. Automatically change the way the boxes are laid out.
  3. Manually change the way boxes are laid out.
  4. Change the line style between boxes.
  5. Choose what kind of task information to show.

What is the completion of a CPM network diagram? ›

Completion of an activity on CPM network diagram, is generally known
1.Completion of an activity on CPM network diagram, is generally known
[A]. Event [B]. Node [C]. Connector [D]. All the above. Answer: Option D Explanation: No answer description available for this question. Let us discuss. Workspace Report

How does the network diagram helps project team to complete the project on time? ›

A project network diagram is an important tool because it helps teams visualize the activities that need to be completed over the duration of a project. It also gives crucial context like task duration, sequence, and dependency.

What is the main purpose of a network diagram? ›

A network diagram is a visual representation of a computer or telecommunications network. It shows the components that make up a network and how they interact, including routers, devices, hubs, firewalls, etc.

How do you convert a Gantt chart to a network diagram? ›

To display a network diagram of the schedule select the Task tab, View ribbon group, Gantt chart drop down menu, and Network Diagram, Figure 2.

What is network analysis in project? ›

Network Analysis: The general name given to certain specific techniques which can be used for the planning, management, and control of projects. Some use the term network analysis synonymously with critical path method (CPM), critical path analysis (CPA), and programme evaluation and review technique (PERT).

What are the four main steps involved within the CPM? ›

Steps in CPM Project Planning

Determine the sequence of those activities. Draw a network diagram. Estimate the completion time for each activity. Update the CPM diagram as the project progresses.

What is crashing of CPM network? ›

Crashing of networks is the phenomenon of reducing the overall duration of the project. The crashing of networks is carried out by deploying more resources to one or more activities. Deploying more resources is based on the cost slope of a particular activity in the project network.

What is earliest finish in a CPM network? ›

Critical Path Method (CPM): Any calculation method that shows the Critical Path in the schedule. Duration: The amount of time required to complete a schedule activity. Early Start (ES): Earliest date the activity can start. Early Finish (EF): Earliest date that the activity can finish.

What is the major use of network in project planning? ›

Answer: Network Diagrams aid in planning, organizing and controlling. Since all project activities are shown in sequence with relevant interrelationships, the network diagram of a project will help the project manager and team during planning and organizing.

What role does the network play in project planning? ›

A project network diagram is useful for planning and tracking a project from start to finish and organizing tasks within a project. It's usually depicted as a chart with a series of boxes and arrows. The most common method for creating network diagrams in project management is the precedence diagramming method (PDM).

What is the purpose of activity network in project planning? ›

An activity network diagram tool is used extensively in and is necessary for the identification of a project's critical path (which is used to determine the expected completion time of the project).


1. How to draw a CPM network diagram
2. Project Management: Finding the Critical Path(s) and Project Duration
(Excel & Analytics - Dr. Mustafa Canbolat)
3. Activity Networks and dummy activities
(Joel Speranza Math)
4. Project Management: Finding the Critical Path, duration and Project Duration | Critical Path Method
(Civil Engineering Exam)
5. Project Networks
(You do the Maths)
6. Project Management Networks Part 2: Forward and Backward Pass
(Prof C Explains)
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